Referee Resources

Referee Handbook

The Referee Handbook dictates the official NSSA procedures for shooting, scoring, safety, protests, and other areas of shoot management with which referees must be familiar.

Download the 2021 NSSA Referee Handbook

Download the Master Referee Application Form

Becoming a Referee

Candidates wishing to become certified as a skeet referee must complete an application and pass the NSSA referee test. Complete an application and submit it to your state association for approval. Find your state association and click on its ID number for contact information.

Download the NSSA Referee Application

Download the 2021 NSSA Referee Test

Click this to Find a Referee

Long-time Member Howard Confer Passes

Howard and Letitia ConferNSSA regrets to report the death of Howard Confer, one of the association’s longest-serving active members and the person most responsible for the high-quality targets thrown at the World Skeet Championships. He died peacefully at home on October 23, 2016, at the age of 97.

Howard was an ambassador for the game of skeet in his home state of Michigan and the nation. He was inducted into the NSSA Hall of Fame in 1975 as the Ray Boller Award recipient and as a shooter in 1979. He is also in the Michigan Skeet Hall of Fame. Howard attended the World Skeet Championships 54 times, shooting in 52 consecutive World Shoots and winning a world championship in 1954. He served as NSSA president 1976-1978.

Howard Confer’s estate encourages his friends to donate to NSSA’s general fund,
youth shooting initiatives, or NSSA Museum in his memory.

Click here to donate.

As a long-time member of the Detroit Gun Club, Howard was a member of the famed Michigan Wreckers 5-man team that dominated team events in the 1960s and holds a number of team world records. Until the past few months, he was still active in the game and was still coaching at the Detroit Gun Club, as well as remaining busy designing clay target traps and installing sporting clays courses across the U.S.

Although he served his club and NSSA tirelessly in many ways, his greatest contribution was his quest for perfection in the targets thrown at the World Skeet Championships and other events. Howard wanted every target thrown to be perfect, and it especially mattered to him that the World Shoot throw targets worthy of the status of the event. That meant no broken targets from the machine and every target flying the same. To reduce the number of broken targets, he started by having referees count them, then analyzed the reason for the breakage: was it the manufacturing process, the way they were shipped and handled, the way they were loaded into the machine, a problem with the machine, or something else?

“At first he would ride on the back of the truck, watch us unload the boxes, and make sure we were handling targets correctly,” said Barney Brown, a trap expert at the National Shooting Complex and protégé of Howard’s. “He developed an 18-point checklist for every machine. If there were too many broken targets, his common phrase was ‘pull it,’ meaning we had to pull the machine and determine what the problem was.

“Howard was absolutely committed to ensuring quality in each and every target, in each and every machine and event. He certainly helped me become better at serving the industry. He revolutionized quality control and checks and balances in targets. I’m a better man for even meeting him. At first he was a mentor, making sure I was learning and doing what I should, but he evolved into an honest friend and someone I looked up to,” Brown said.

“Howard was a fixture in NSSA for over 55 years,” said Louise Terry, an NSSA past president who served with Howard in many capacities over decades. “His life was dedicated to our sport and he gave willingly of his time to the association. Howard was the primary person who dedicated years of focus to target quality, especially at the World Shoot. Anyone who has attended the World Shoot can attribute the high-quality targets to his work. Nobody loved skeet more than Howard, and this is a great loss to our association.”

Howard is survived by his wife of 71 years, Letitia; children Daniel (Debbie) and Sheri (Steve) Confer; grandchildren Carrie and Cole (Maria) Confer and Hunter and Sara Dzierbicki; and great grandson, Xavier Confer.

Funeral Service will be at Lynch & Sons Funeral Home in Clawson, Michigan, on Monday, October 31 at 11 a.m. Obituary and condolences are at A memorial service will be held at Detroit Gun Club on December 23 at 1 p.m.

Howard Confer’s estate wishes to encourage people to give to the NSSA in memory of Howard. At their request, we have set up a donation form for that purpose. Those who wish to remember Howard and his love of skeet shooting can click here to make a tax deductible donation online.

If you prefer to mail a donation, you may send a check to NSSA with the following on the memo line, or provide a separate letter accompanying the check:

In memory of Howard Confer to support (a) the NSSA Skeet Program, (b) NSSA Youth Skeet Shooting or (c) NSSA HOF/Museum.

For your tax records, the Federal Tax ID number of NSSA is 75-0108632.

Click on any photo to enlarge.

Member Benefits / Offers

The National Skeet Shooting Association is all about giving you more: more fun, more friendship, more camaraderie, and most of all, more value. As a member, you’ll enjoy these exclusive benefits:

Publications and Credentials

  • Monthly issues of Clay Target Nation magazine, the official publication of NSSA. Sign up for alerts to download digital editions the moment they are published
  • Subscription to NSSA’s weekly e-newsletter, Target Talk, with news, shooting tips, in-depth articles, and expert commentary
  • Access to the National Shooting Complex, the premier shooting facility in the world
  • Pocket edition NSSA rule book
  • Window decal to display with pride
  • Exclusive scholarship program for high school seniors, with four annual awards of $2,500
  • Distinctive personal ID card which shows you belong to a group that prides itself in maintaining the honor, integrity and rules of the game

Improve Your Scores

  • Access members-only features at, with shoot results, personal shooting history, points races, downloadable forms, and more
  • Enjoy computerized score-keeping and classification systems through NSSA headquarters, determining your rank by performance in class so shooters compete only with others of the same skill level
  • Use handy membership and shoot record classification cards.
  • Receive annual recognition through All-American, Class All-American, High Average Leaders, and other recognition programs
  • PLUS, enjoy recognition awards when you shoot 500 or more registered targets during the year

Participate in More Events

  • Invitations to registered NSSA tournaments, including State and Zone Shoots
  • Take part in the annual World Skeet Championships, open to all members of all classes, with the opportunity to inspect the latest guns and accessories, share in recognition of top shooters, and compete in the world’s greatest skeet extravaganza
  • Participate in the Crossfire program, which allows shooters to enter registered Sporting Clays tournaments without a separate NSCA membership.
  • Become an NSSA Certified Instructor through courses hosted at local gun clubs, conducted by the NSSA Chief Instructor or other master instructors upon request
  • Become certified as an official skeet referee
  • Participate in the association’s governance as an NSSA Director, Zone Committee Person, or officer
  • Vote in the bi-annual election of NSSA Directors and participate in the annual NSSA membership meeting

Save Money with Discounts and Free Merchandise

  • Earn points for every target shot and spend them on logo clothing, shoot certificates, shooting gear, and other useful items.
  • Get NSSA member-only discounted rates on gun floater insurance for individual members and liability insurance for clubs through Sportsman’s Insurance Agency, Inc.

The NSSA or NSCA reserves the right to terminate, not renew and deny membership to any person or organization at any time for any reason, or no reason, in its sole and absolute discretion, subject to applicable law.  Membership in the NSSA or NSCA is a privilege and not a right. 

Member Club Benefits

Skeet clubs benefit in many ways from becoming NSSA affiliated member clubs. Some of the benefits of membership include:

  • The opportunity to hold registered shoots that attract the most active, involved skeet shooters to your club
  • The NSSA Gun Club Manual, which provides valuable information on course and facilities design, club and shoot management, insurance needs, marketing, equipment, running registered shoots, and other topics that assist club management
  • Member discount program offering 5% to 85% discounts on travel, business products, gifts, and much more
  • Forms and materials for running registered shoots
  • Ability to buy gun club liability insurance through SIAI
  • Ability to buy NSSA-endorsed Workers’ Compensation insurance through SIAI
  • The opportunity to participate in the NSSA Certified Instructor program to develop instructors for your club
  • Participation in the NSSA Referees program, to develop referees for your club and to gain access to NSSA referees
  • Discounted club advertising packages in Clay Target Nation magazine and Target Talk e-newsletter to promote your shoots, facilities, and/or hunting opportunities
  • Inclusion in the member club listing and club search function on
  • Inclusion in the registered shoot listing and shoot search function on, plus any applicable lists of major shoots
  • Inclusion in shoot calendars sent to national and regional press
  • Access to a wealth of information and tools on, including members-only materials
  • Regular updates from NSSA headquarters on rules changes, events, and other issues affecting club and shoot management
  • Opportunity to promote your shoots and facilities on NSSA’s official Facebook page,
  • Toll-free number (800-877-5338) through which gun clubs can quickly receive answers to questions and assistance with membership issues from an experienced and dedicated NSSA headquarters staff
  • Computerized score-keeping and classification system at NSSA headquarters, with forms provided by NSSA for submission of shoot records
  • The opportunity to bid on hosting major shoots such as the U.S. Open, Zone Shoots, and State Shoots

Join Or Renew Now


The NSSA or NSCA reserves the right to terminate, not renew and deny membership to any person or organization at any time for any reason, or no reason, in its sole and absolute discretion, subject to applicable law.  Membership in the NSSA or NSCA is a privilege and not a right.